What is Dyslexia?

Individuals with dyslexia have trouble reading, writing, spelling and math even though they have the ability and opportunities to learn. People with dyslexia are said to have a language learning difference.

Dyslexia Basics (International Dyslexia Association)

What is Dyscalculia?

Dyscalculia is a mathematical disability in which a person has a difficult time solving arithmetic problems and grasping math concepts.

What is Dysgraphia?

Dysgraphia is a writing disability in which a person finds it hard to form letters or write within a defined space.

What is an Auditory and Visual Processing Disability?

An auditory and visual processing disability is a sensory disability in which a person has difficulty understanding language despite normal hearing and vision.

Signs & Symptoms:

  • Difficulty learning the alphabet, nursery rhymes, or songs
  • Difficulty pronouncing words
  • Misreading or omitting common short words
  • Confusion with before/after, right/left, etc.
  • Weak memory for lists, directions, or facts
  • Difficulty remembering names of letters
  • Slow reading or "stumbling" through longer words
  • Many spelling mistakes
  • May consistently misunderstand what is being said
  • May be bothered by different frequencies of sound (i.e., music, vacuums, loud noises) or may be overly sensitive to sound
  • May have difficulty in differentiating sounds that occur simultaneously
  • May reverse numbers
  • May have difficulty with time, sequencing, and problem solving

Causes and Other Illnesses:

  • Current research indicates that individuals with learning disabilities are at a greater risk to experience substance abuse, suicide, depression, and significant psychiatric problems compared with the general public.
  • 30-50% of all individuals with learning disabilities also have attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Emerging research indicates a higher incidence of learning disabilities in both urban and rural areas, which is linked to environmental factors such as lead poisoning and poor pre-natal care.

Sources: The International Dyslexia Association (2008); Learning Disabilities Association of Western New York (2007)