What is Dyslexia?
Individuals with dyslexia have trouble reading, writing, spelling and math even though they have the ability and opportunities to learn. People with dyslexia are said to have a language learning difference.
What is Dyscalculia?
Dyscalculia is a mathematical disability in which a person has a difficult time solving arithmetic problems and grasping math concepts.
What is Dysgraphia?
Dysgraphia is a writing disability in which a person finds it hard to form letters or write within a defined space.
What is an Auditory and Visual Processing Disability?
An auditory and visual processing disability is a sensory disability in which a person has difficulty understanding language despite normal hearing and vision.
Signs & Symptoms:
- Difficulty learning the alphabet, nursery rhymes, or songs
- Difficulty pronouncing words
- Misreading or omitting common short words
- Confusion with before/after, right/left, etc.
- Weak memory for lists, directions, or facts
- Difficulty remembering names of letters
- Slow reading or "stumbling" through longer words
- Many spelling mistakes
- May consistently misunderstand what is being said
- May be bothered by different frequencies of sound (i.e., music, vacuums, loud noises) or may be overly sensitive to sound
- May have difficulty in differentiating sounds that occur simultaneously
- May reverse numbers
- May have difficulty with time, sequencing, and problem solving
Causes and Other Illnesses:
- Current research indicates that individuals with learning disabilities are at a greater risk to experience substance abuse, suicide, depression, and significant psychiatric problems compared with the general public.
- 30-50% of all individuals with learning disabilities also have attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
- Emerging research indicates a higher incidence of learning disabilities in both urban and rural areas, which is linked to environmental factors such as lead poisoning and poor pre-natal care.
Sources: The International Dyslexia Association (2008); Learning Disabilities Association of Western New York (2007)